Prologue

Don Jose Maria Arizmendiarrieta

(22 April 1915 – 29 November 1976)

Don José María was born in Markina (Biscay) in the hamlet of Iturbe, in the neighborhood of Barinaga.

His parents were José Luis and Tomasa, owners of a good farmhouse with its own hired hand.

His father was known as man of peace among their neighbors: good-natured, with a social life centered on fairs and brotherhoods; cheerful and decisive.

His mother, a housewife on the model of a Biblical woman, was the true teacher of don José María: intelligent, orderly, industrious, and self-sacrificing, she carried the weight and style in education of their children and the administration of the hamlet.

Purchase chapter one of this book, including the introduction and prologue, at GEO (a portion of the proceeds goes towards supporting GEO’s work). Name your own price. The download includes a PDF, a .mobi (Kindle) file, and an .epub (general e-book) file.

Don José María, the first of three brothers and one sister (José María, Francisco, María and Jesús), at twelve years old, renounced the title and privileges of the firstborn in the interest of his religious vocation, which led him to the Seminary of latines in Castillo de Elejabeitia.

His teacher, doña Patrocinio Uranga, head of the rural school, prepared him thoroughly for this step.

In 1931, in the midst of republican turbulence, we find him in the famous Seminario Mayor de Vitoria to study Philosophy and Theology.

From the seminary to the barracks

The Spanish Civil War surprised him in Markina in the middle of a vacation. At military age, he joined the Basque militia, and was assigned journalist duty.

He was stationed at the General Barracks of Abando. He participated in the founding and operation of two newspapers: Gudari and Eguna.

From this observation point, with first-hand documentation, he followed all the vicissitudes of the Euskadi Government and the bloody events that devastated the Basque Country.

The 19th of June, 1937, he was taken prisoner in Bilbao. Following a brief attempt to escape to France (he made it as far as Lazcano), he was hunted down in Bilbao after being betrayed by a compatriot. His fellow journalist was condemned to death; he was given a reprieve, but forced to join the "national" troops, because he was of military age and declared he had been stationed at the barracks, not the newspaper.

He spent the remainder of the war in Burgos alternating between military tasks and seminary studies. When the war ended, he returned to Vitoria Seminary to complete his priestly studies.

To Mondragon, out of obedience

The first of January, 1941, he said his first mass in Markina.

He had already packed his suitcase and documents to pursue his studies at the University of Louvaine [Belgium] when he received a letter from Bishop Lauzurica sending him to the Parish of St. John the Baptist of Mondragon as curate. All his hopes were cut short, and he had to settle for eventually taking short courses in Vitoria and Santander to get his degree.

February fifth, that same year, he got off at the Mondragon train station with a cardboard suitcase, a briefcase, and all the regulation attire of a cleric: cloak, cassock, capello romano, etc.

One day later, don José Luis Iñarra would arrive, and would rule the Parish of Mondragon with a masterful touch for 35 years († 2 October, 1976).

The ’40s were the years of hunger and of all the aftermath of a cruel civil war: orphans on the street, widows without support, irreconcilable enemies, workers in forced unemployment, misery of all kinds…

In this environment, don José María took up his pastoral duties. Soon, he made contact with the young people in the Apprentice School of the Unión Cerrajera, in Catholic Action, in the J.O.C., and in the Congregation of San Luis Gonzaga.

Milestones

Chronologically, we can mark the milestones of his life as follows:

1941

He arrives in Mondragon on the 5th of February.

1943

The first of June, Youth Sports of Mondragon is created and presented. The 10th of October, the Professional School is officially inaugurated in the building of the Foundación Viteri. The enrollment registers 20 students. Lands in Iturripe (16,000 m2), are purchased with money (and awareness) raised among the people with cavalcades, festivals, raffles, etc.

1947

The first class of Industrial Experts enrolls in the School of Zaragoza, with a schooling dispensation.

1948

The Mondragon League of Education and Culture is created as a legal entity and sponsor of the Professional School and other teaching activities.

The ’50s

Don José María makes himself heard in the people. His sermons and conferences are not easy to digest. He always has the habit of "thinking out loud." He speaks with a certain ponderousness, as if he is meditating on each expression. Many times, people do not understand where he was going. He is not discouraged. He takes for himself the saying that "he who has to say something, sooner or later says it, and sooner or later they hear him."

His two great works, the Polytechnical Professional School and the industrial cooperatives, are established in this decade.

1952

With attendance of the Minister of Education, Mr. Ruiz Giménez, the new Professional School is opened in the enormous "Cometal" building close to the station. The 170 students get lost in the cement and iron structure with capacity for 1,000. Is don José María crazy? He receives, from the hands of the Minister, the Commendation of the Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise.

The League of Education and Culture is granted the Sash of the Civil Order of Alfonso X, the Wise.

Twelve students of the first class finish the degree of Industrial Expert.

1953

The Mondragon Association of the Home is created.

1955

The social work of don José María displeases administrative spheres. His actions in Mondragon are considered revolutionary. There are some formal accusations. Don José María is nearly exiled. He is saved by a people’s counteroffensive.

1956

The day 14 of April is a very memorable date in the annals of cooperativism. In a ceremony, don José María blesses the first stone of ULGOR, S.C.I., on the land of San Andrés de Mondragón.

1957

The Professional School is officially recognized as a regulation teaching center with the degrees of Official and Master.

1959

The Caja Laboral Popular and the Servicios de Provisión Social (the future LAGUN-ARO) are founded on Resusta street in Mondragon.

1960

In September, the first (mimeographed) edition of the magazine Cooperación (later T.U.) comes out, on the exclusive initiative of don José María.

The ’60s

It is a fruitful decade, marking, so to speak, the establishment of cooperativist doctrine around the Caja Laboral Popular. A dizzying expansion of the industrial cooperatives takes place, and other initiatives take shape.

Don José María sees one of his dreams carried out: the construction of the new Polytechnical Professional School on the broad lands of Iturripe. It is 40,000 m2 for a school/sports complex. The work is carried out thanks, in large part, to popular subscription.

The School had been and would be the engine of cooperative expansion.

1964

The League of Education and Culture is transformed into a cooperative.

1965

Another new institution is created: The League of Assistance and Education, title-holder of the Assistance Center.

Construction begins on the new Polytechnical Professional School in Iturripe, and on the sports complex. The School has more than 1,000 students, and teaches the specialties of Mechanics, Electricity, Electronics, Smelting, Drafting and Automation.

1966

A new, unique cooperative is formed: ALECOOP (Actividad Laboral Escolar Cooperativa), an enterprise managed by the active students of the Profession Polytechnical School.

By Decree of the 3rd of June, 1965, the Medalla de Oro al Labor is granted to don José María. The Minister of Labor, Romero Gorria, personally presents the medal the 25th of August, 1966.

The 24th of April of this same year, Mondragon pays due homage to three deserving figures, naming them adoptive children of the villa: don Mariano Briones (doctor), don José Luis Iñarra (parson) and don José María Arizmendiarrieta. The three have completed 25 years of work in Mondragon.

1968

The Polytechnical Professional School is recognized as a school of Technical Industrial Engineering, by Ministerial Order of the 30th of July. This closes the cycle of recognitions. Still to come are its transformation into a University School of Technical Engineering (March 5, 1976) and the recognition of the School as a Polytechnical Institute (July 2, 1976).

Illness and death

In the spring of 1968, don José María receives the first serious warning about his health: a threat of angina [angina pectoris, also known as stable angina]. Following a delicate surgery, he is subjected to ongoing medical treatment and periodic check-ups.

An anecdote: by doctor’s prescription, some "friends" steal his democratic bicycle, replacing it with a Velosólex [moped] for relief from his physical efforts.

His figure has become well-known on the streets of Mondragon: tall, lean, slow of gait, sunken temples, dark glasses, white hair.

In spite of the care, the disease is slowly undermining him. Fatigue overcomes him, and he cannot disguise it.

Once again, he has to go into "drydock." At the clinic of La Concepción in Madrid, he undergoes open-heart surgery. It is the month of February, 1974. He gradually recovers from the heart disease, but not so from the incisions from the operation, the scarring from which produce grave and continuous complications.

The treatments and cures are like a form of martyrdom for him. To questions of how he felt with the wound weighing on him, he says: "It is an unimportant discomfort, borne like sackcloth…."

Despite it all, he leads a nearly normal life, though every day, he looks more worn. His physical presence wanes visibly. He lives by the spirit, in the hope of being useful to the institutions in which he participates.

The most important final dates are the following:

1968

First serious warning of his cardiac condition. Operation.

1974

Open-heart surgery and application of an artificial valve (February).

1976

June: Another surgery to address what they call "OR illness," which impedes the normal closure of the wounds from an operation.

September: Another operation in the clinic of La Concepción in Madrid, with a skin transplant for the scarring of the wound. He recovers well.

October: Liver and renal complications appear, along with general weakening. He appears physically consumed, but with the same optimistic and creative spirit as always.

November: Early in the month, he is admitted to the Assistance Center of Mondragon for intensive care and rest. New complications appear.

The 25th, in full lucidity and conscious of his state, he receives the last sacraments.

He suffers pooling in the lungs that is alleviated by means of punctures.

The morning of the 28th, Sunday, he is in agony. At noon, he receives the visit of the Minister of Labor, don Alvaro Rengifo, a personal friend. He recovers lucidity and summons the strength to converse with the Minister about the Cooperation Law. "To look back is an offense to God: we must always look forward," is his last message.

He still has the strength to encourage relatives and friends, aware of his impending final separation from them.

On Monday, the 29th, in the afternoon, he declines visibly: his physical reserves have reached their limit.

At 8:20 he is overcome by a heart attack, which is definitive; he exhales a deep sigh and dies in holy peace.

Funeral honors

There is a viewing of the body in the parish church. For two days, a vigil is held for him by various representatives of the cooperatives in the area, family, and friends. The parade of people is endless. A little of his popular recognition is reflected in the alms trays at masses: some 300,000 pesetas are collected.

The first of December, at 7 in the evening, the Minister of Labor presides over the funeral proceedings and accompanies the mortal remains of his friend, finally throwing dirt on the casket in the cemetery.

More than 60 priests officiate the religious ceremonies.

The temple cannot hold the thousands of people who want to pay him a final tribute, and they crowd into the porticos and adjacent streets.

On the shoulders of the priests, the nephews of the deceased, and teachers from the Polytechnical Professional School, the casket is carried from the parish church to the cemetery. Along the entire length of the route, people crowd in to give him a heartfelt final farewell.

Now don José María rests in peace. Never was the expression better used for one who worked so much in life!

Juan Leibar


Geuk, geuretik eta geurez,

jaso beharko dugu

Euskal Herri maitea.


Citations

The sources and citation system in this study are as follows.

This study is based fundamentally on the publication The Complete Works of José María Arizmendiarrieta, carried out by the Caja Laboral Popular, Mondragon, undated, restricted edition, mimeographed.

Notice: bibliographical indications of cited texts of Arizmendiarrieta’s will always be given within the text itself of the study, with the abbreviations indicated below. All other bibliographical citations will go at the foot of the page.

The Complete Works of Arizmediarrieta is comprised of 15 volumes (one printed and fourteen in mimeograph). The writings are prepared in a thematic classification made up of seven principle parts, whose abbreviations we give here:


CAS (only printed volume) Social Apostolate Conferences
CLP (I, II, III) Caja Laboral Popular
EP (I, II) Professional School
FC (I, II, III, IV) Cooperative Training
PR (I, II) First Achievements
SS (I, II) Sermons


So, the citation system is interpreted as follows:

EP, I, 240 = "See the group of volumes of Professional School, first volume, page 240."

SS, I, 128 = "See the group of volumes of Sermons, first volume, page 128."

FC, III, 15 = "See the group of volumes of Cooperative Training, third volume, page 15."


Prologue to the Second Edition

To speak again about Arizmendiarrieta, don José María, in a new climate, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, where an old world is closing and we don’t know, much as we would like to, if another new one is really opening. It appears a task is already emerging: defining the new significance of cooperativism in this time. Nearly all the most recent texts about Arizmendiarrieta or the experience of Arrasate-Mondragon start by making reference to the decisive changes after his death, in the Spanish State and in the international order, to highlight the renewed interest in the "Arizmendi model" of community and of association of work in this global context of readjustments and adaptations.

This new edition that Otalora has scheduled of The Cooperative Man can omit this noisy change in context. It wasn’t an easy exercise in its day, in a radicalized climate of ideological, political, and social contradictions, in a polemic, tense environment, full of rude condemnations, to find a language and a reserved enough way to deal with the topic, without getting into vain excesses, and not avoiding poisonous issues, to reach the core: Arizmendiarrieta’s thinking, as it exposes itself through his work, with the strength, and at the same time, the fragility that characterize it. The only thing that may be surprising today is that it could have constituted a problem then. It also was to us. In a short time, the winds have changed greatly, above all those that only five years ago seemed powerful and were mercilessly severe with Arizmendiarrieta’s reformist cooperative project. Since then, "the gods have left one by one, almost on tiptoes, almost without us realizing," José Luis Rubio has exquisitely diagnosed.1

The situation is certainly quite different now. Workers now have unions, legislation, etc. They are not at all helpless. It is even democratic—they do not go about clandestinely. And yet their jobs are in more danger than ever—unemployment is increasing, and the future looms threateningly. The concepts of initiative, responsibility, maturity, and cooperation take on an urgency close to that of a life preserver.

Yet, at the same time, the rigors of the crisis, which bring worker-cooperators hard responsibilities and sacrifices, make this commitment unattractive, and all the more so in a society that, in professional and work fields, is not easily impressed by spiritual motivations.

"The time of great ideals, of collective stakes, is already history," observes José Luis Rubio. "The great ideologies have fallen, incapable of giving a global response to the problems that have arisen. With the Berlin Wall, one of the last great collective dreams also has fallen (…). We are in post-modernism: short, private projects; immediate, quick triumph; suspicion of every common project; transcendence is success, position, power."

New times, new risks. There is the risk, for example, of ending up forgetting the spirit that enlivened the cooperative project, before the bombardment of needs, to become strong in strategies of pure efficacy. It continues to be valid that cooperativism is not—should not be—a factory that works better or worse, or a vigorous Caja Laboral. Arizmendian cooperativism is first and foremost a thought, a human and social attitude, a recognition of principles and ideals.

All this considered, there is no reason to give up. The decline of ideologies doesn’t necessarily mean the decline of ideas and ideals. What the parents were able to do, the children will not be unable to do. Risk is inherent to life. There exist no prefabricated solutions with a guarantee of success that could be applied mechanically to new situations. In Arizmendiarrieta’s words, the task will always be: To be able to work with realism without renouncing ideals. That is: new times, new possibilities.

In effect, the collapse of the countries of Eastern Europe has not only demonstrated the need for a search for new formulas for the organization of work, but has also made it real possibility, free from dogmatism. "For many years, the field of economic organization and management has been closed up in the intellectual prison of the dual orientation: the choice between ownership and control of the means of production by the private sector or by the State."2

Following the "decline of totalitarian ideologies," now "an ever-greater number of people from all over the world experience heterodox forms of organization and control of economic activities."3

In this way, Arrasate appears, not as a model to copy, but as an experience rich in teachings.4 [Translator’s note: "Arrasate" is the Basque name for the town of Mondragon.]

R. Morrison, a researcher who came to the topic of Arrasate-Mondragon through the anti-nuclear movement, speaks in an especially positive tone regarding the teachings that can be extracted from this experience. He writes that now that the Left and Right are equally out of ideas and don’t know where to turn, "Mondragon suggests that we can act creatively within our own communities to build social systems that embrace freedom, justice, and ecological sanity."5

Morrison believes he has discovered, in Arrasate, the point from which it is possible for us to "reimagine the future"—an expression that he owes to Jesus Larrañaga.

Morrison finds the Arizmendian concept of society, of work, and of community full of teachings at three levels. To remodel our modern (or already postmodern) industrial society itself,6 to outline new models of development for the Third World, and especially interesting for the countries of the East, or former communists, looking for a democratic socialist economic formula.7

The Guardian reported on an important study trip to Mondragon made precisely a year ago by thirteen prominent Soviet politicians and businesspeople, among them Dr. Valery Rutgaizer, a man whom Gorbachev—according to the newspaper—has entrusted with the difficult economic transformation of the Soviet system.8 According to this information, Arrasate offered the visitors numerous useful ideas for their plans, and they were able to learn even more from Mondragon than from their preceding visit to England.9

W. Foote and K. King Whyte point out that "Mondragon has already had an important influence on US legislation on worker cooperatives and worker participation in business ownership,"10 highlighting the interest sparked by this experience in the unions and universities of that country. "It is obvious," they conclude, "that the message of Mondragon is reaching an ever-wider public throughout the world."11

At home, future perspectives seem to us less grandiose, more tempered and pragmatic. The dominant concern of cooperators at this moment seems to be the business homogenization of the Grupo Cooperativo and the development of a new strategy to face the new situation in the European framework, without shrinking from these rather delicate operations.12

"The formulation of this new strategy," writes José María Ormaechea, "burdened with apparent contradictions with the described principles and mission, finds its explanation in the new context in which it is judged necessary to access economies of optimal scales to make the cooperatives profitable, and better still, the sectors that emerge from groups of them. Finding a place in Europe, and above all, the drive to achieve a critical sufficient dimension in useful time, is going to require vigorous actions that will be impossible if they only promote individual cooperative businesses.13

Ormaechea himself prefers not to get into predicting the adventure–"what the Grupo Cooperativo Mondragon will be in the future is going to depend necessarily on the attitude of the men [and women] who progressively take over from the first generations."

On the other hand, for cooperativism to remain intact, in spite of its own difficulties, the original vocational commitment to contribute to the transformation of society, to "make a country human," which, in a devastated Euskadi, should perhaps be read as "remake the country humanely" from its rubble. If the times are bad for poetry, neither are they good for work. Arizmendiarrieta intended to humanize mankind by humanizing work. Today, to be able to humanize work, it first has to be created, and that is not easy. In considerations from 1969, Arizmendiarrieta recalls the long Basque history of emmigration and warned of the danger of its recurrence, if measures are not taken in time. "Euskalerrian baño Euskalerritik kanpora asko be euskaldun geiago bizi garena gogoratzekoan, ezin aztu genezake lenago, orain eta geruago be gure tartetik iges egin bearrean asko izango dirala, ekonomi sailletan gure erriari indar aundiagoa emoten ez ba-dautsagu." It was not prophecy, but simple lucidity, and don José María’s ability to think of things over the long term. What can and should the cooperative spirit contribute to the creation of jobs today? As can be seen, interest in his reflections does not seem to fade with the passage of time.

The number of studies dedicated to Arizmendian cooperativism or to the experience of Arrasate-Mondragon shows that researchers’ interest has not faded over the years. Quite the contrary. Since the first edition of The Cooperative Man, published by Jakin/Caja Laboral Popular in 1984, new studies have proliferated in English, Japanese, German, Spanish, and Basque, both about the person of don José María14 and about cooperativism of the Arizmendian type or, more concretely, the experience in Arrasate-Mondragon that he inspired.15

While there is no lack of studies on pedagogy, anthropology, and even socio-linguistics and urban architecture, what continues to be most common is socio-economic analysis, and clearly, studies in English (from the US) predominate.

Among all this literature, a recent work deserves be highlighted: Mondragon, More Than a Utopia, by William Foote Whyte and Kathleen King Whyte, an investigation with clear objectives and carried out with precision.16

Its authors have been able to happily combine dense information with a readable and light narrative style. This book offers the most complete discussion so far of the cooperative experience in its diverse aspects: history, structures and organization of the businesses, the character and ideas of their inspiration, Arizmendiarrieta, and the meaning of this experience for other essays. The work is the fruit of a long process of research described in the appendix by W. Foote Whyte17 and constitutes, without a doubt, the finest text there is today about the experience of Arrasate-Mondragon, written with such love and intellectual rigor that even from a literary perspective, it is a delight.

For The Cooperative Man, which is now being republished, it is an honor have been of some help in more than a few of the investigations that have taken place after its publication, and to have been able to have a global discussion of Arizmendiarrieta’s thought for his purposes. It is no less of an honor to have deserved translation into Japanese by professor Hideo Ishizuka (1990).18 And it gives us great satisfaction, not without surprise, to see the first run of five thousand copies sell out in seven years, which is proof of its validity and utility, beyond the small sphere of researchers, for workers, cooperators and people of all kinds interested in cooperative ideas.

Criticism of our work has been benign without exception, and even, in some cases, more than criticism. We take it as an invitation to pursue research in chapters that do not yet go deep enough, especially in terms of the study of the personality (spirituality, etc.) of don José Maria.19 We excuse ourselves by saying that in this study of Arizmendiarrieta’s thought, a mere analysis limited strictly to his writings, his biography could not interest us except as a framework for his ideas. We fully recognize the existence of these gaps in the research, and we can only vote for seeing this default corrected without delay. However, the methods will have to be different, and the authors will have to be others the day this work begins on these studies, starting with the systematic compilation of oral testimonies.20

For the moment, this second edition of The Cooperative Man maintains full the text of the first, only slightly revised. There are a few corrections—we appreciate the critiques—deletion of the organizational charts of the cooperative businesses inspired by Arizmendiarrieta (they were already out of date anyway); translation into Spanish, in the notes, of a rather long text in Basque of criticism of cooperativism, an update of the bibliography, and some other minor retouching. The content remains intact: the Arizmendian philosophy of the person and of work.

"Work is, first and foremost, a service to community," Arizmendiarrieta would have said at this point. Really, to be able to do work in this regard is the main objective of this book, including in its new edition, and at the same time, it serves as a tribute to the memory of don José María.

December 1991. In Berastegi.


  1. Rubio, J.L., Don José María Arizmendiarrieta: Una presencia estimulante, Foundación Gizabidea, Mondragon 1990, 23.

  2. Whyte, W.F.-Whyte, K.K., Mondragón, más que una utopía, Txertoa, Donostia/Saint Sebastian 1989, 21.

  3. Ib. 22.

  4. Ib. 343. Mondragon can serve as an inspiration to those trust themselves to find channels to follow a humanist conception as they face a hard economic and technological reality. Mondragon demonstrates that is not easy to face that challenge, but that it can be done. The entire fifth part of this book carries the title of "The lessons of Mondragon."

  5. Morisson, R., We Build the Road As We Travel, Philadelphia 1991, 2. "Mondragon and its development is part of, and a commentary on, the postmodern condition. It is essentially an experiment in social reconstruction through cooperative community." Ib. 15.

  6. "The Mondragon model offers us the prospect of the organic creation of a truly independent civil society, a path away from the destructive allure of industrial modernism and toward a social order that respects and fosters the unity in diversity of the natural world." Ib. 222. "The social choices developed by the Mondragon system are basic material for creating a new reality. The exercise of freedom and the building of community, the social creation of unity in diversity, are central to the true social re-forming of industrial modernism." Ib. 245.

  7. "The Mondragon model has much to offer those exploring new directions as part of glasnost and perestroika." And again, "The appeal of the Mondragon model to innovative thinkers in a Communist world in transition is understandable." Ib. 229.

  8.   The Guardian, December 1, 1989, Financial News, 6. "Viva Perestroika: Why Russia’s future may lie with the Basques."

  9. The delegation found more ideas for practical application in Mondragon than in Britain…."

  10. Whyte, W.F.-Whyte, K.K., op. cit. 321.

  11. Ib., 329.

  12. Ormaechea, J.M., La Experiencia Cooperativa de Mondragón, Grupo Cooperativo Mondragon 1991, 189ss "El futuro del Grupo."

  13. Ib., 208-209.

  14. Agirreazkuenaga, J., Prentsa euskaraz: 1936eko gudaldian eta lehen Euskal Gobernuaren garaina. Jakin 56 (1989) 97-113. Arejolaleibar, J., Dn. Jose Maria Arizmendiarrieta eta Basque, unpublished (Arizmendiarrieta Archive), 193 pp. Ormaechea, J.M., El Hombre que yo conocí, Foundación Gizabidea, Mondragon 1986. OYARZABAL, A., Don José María Arizmendiarrieta visto por sus condiscípulos, Ikasbide 1989. Pérez de Calleja, A., Arizmendiarrieta el hombre de acción, Foundation Gizabidea, Mondragon 1989.

  15. In Spanish, Asua Batarrita, B., Educación y trabajo en la sociedad industrial del País Vasco: la Eskola Politeknikoa Jose Maria Arizmendiarrieta en el Grupo Cooperativo Mondragón, thesis, Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea 1988. Chopeitia, C.A., Una aproximación al cooperativismo mundial y Experiencia de Mondragón (no year or institution given). In German, Heising, P., Das Kooperativ-Experiment von Mondragon. Entstehung und Entwicklung des Kooperativ-Komplexes und die Formen der Partizipation in der Leitung, University of Gottingen 1987. In English, Benham, L.-Keer, PH., How Diverse Organizations Survive: A Case Study of the Mondragon Cooperatives, Center for the Study of American Business, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 1986. Gutiérrez Márquez, A., The creation of Industrial Cooperatives in the Basque Country: A Case Study, Division of the Social Sciences, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago 1985. Hansen, G.B.-Hidalgo, A., The Mondragon Worker Cooperatives: An Example of Successful Community Economic Development, Utah State University 1987. Heffner, R., Mondragon: Study for an Industry Development Plan, Graduate School of Architecture and Urban Planning, UCLA 1986. Milbrath, R.S., Institutional Development and Capital Accumulation in a Complex of Basque Worker Cooperatives, thesis, University of Michigan 1986.

  16. Cfr. note 2. Originally published in 1988 by Cornell University of New York with the title Making Mondragon, the Growth and Dynamics of the Worker Cooperative Complex.

  17. Ib., 345-356. "La evolución de nuestra investigación sobre Mondragón."

  18. Professor Hideo Ishizuka, who is familiar with modern European philosophy, is also the author of a book published in Japanese in 1991, whose title in translation would be From the People of the Basque Cooperative: Mondragon.

  19. For example, Gil Ortega, U., writes in Lumen (1985) 186, "We would have liked to have seen in the book (…) a more detailed study concerning the priestly and Christian experiences of don José María." In the same vein, see Oyarzabal, A., op. cit., 32.

  20. The conferences organized by the Foundación Gizabidea or those published by Otalora in recent years have come to fill this vacuum to a degree.

3 thoughts on “Prologue

  1. 272009 835287Our own chaga mushroom comes with a schokohutige, consistent, charcoal-like arrival, a whole lot of dissimilar towards the style of the standard mushroom. Chaga Tincture 327195

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